This article highlights that while you can remove the means (i.e., the discriminative stimulus) the problem behaviour can resurface if you don’t address the source of reinforcement (i.e., the function). Addicts will substitute one vice for another in meeting their need or want for whatever reinforces their consumption.
As with any behaviour change, both sides of the behaviour need to be analyzed and planned for. Motivation and the means are the antecedents and the outcomes or what the person gets out of it are the consequences.
This is the same issue with gun control that people call for when ever there is a brazen shooting or gang violence. Banning guns or insisting that people carry licenses is only one part of a solution. Figuring out why a youth deems it necessary to carry one or ultimately use one and then addressing those needs is another. There are many more layers to be found there (and with addicts) I’m sure.